Neutralizing VOCs with Ozone

The National Ozone Association routinely hears from people about using ozone treatments to cancel or neutralize VOC type gases.  The short answer is that ozone is quite effective in neutralize many VOCs, but take note that the gas does not go away (except by exhausting the air), but is converted or modified.  If the modified end product is less volatile, the process is considered effective.

Organic Compounds react with Ozone in a process similar to combustion. The reaction of an organic compound with ozone and the combustion of the same compound yield carbon dioxide and water as the main end products. Ozone also combines with most of the Hetro-elements found in organic compounds to produce the elemental oxide with the highest oxidation number.

Inorganic compounds of lower oxidation numbers react with Ozone to produce oxides, however, there are many inorganic compounds which will not react. This report indicates the number of O2 molecules consumed to neutralize one specific compound molecule. The compounds discussed in this report have been divided into groups according to commonly used organic and inorganic classifications to show products common to all the compounds in the group. The reactions are grouped according to the following classification

1- ACIDS, ALCOHOLS, ALDEHYDES AND KETONES
2- AROMATIC COMPOUNDS
3- ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS
4- CHLORIDES
5- NITROGEN CONTAINING COMPOUNDS
6- SULFUR CONTAINING COMPOUNDS
7- OTHER
8- NON-REACTIVE COMPOUNDS
 

SUMMARY

1. ACIDS, ALCOHOLS, ALDEHYDES AND KETONES.
This group breaks down into carbon dioxide, water and oxygen This group includes: Acetic Acid, Acetone, Formaldehyde, Isopropyl Alcohol. M.E.K [methyl ethyl keytone], Propylene Glycol. The sources of these chemicals in our homes include: Tobacco smoke, plywood, cabinets, furniture, particle board, office dividers, new carpets, new drapes, wallpaper, and paneling. Also in cosmetics, shampoo and in packaged, bottled. and canned supermarket foods.

(Acetic Acid, Acetone, n-Butyle Acetate, Butoxyethanol, Cetyl Alcohol, Formaldehyde, Isopropyl Alcohol, Gylcerol, Methacrylic Acid, Methyl-ethyl Keytone (MEK), Propylene Gylcol)

2. AROMATIC COMPOUNDS
This group breaks down into carbon dioxide, water and oxygen This group includes: Benzene. Camphor, and Toulene. These chemicals are associated with paint, new carpets, new drapes and upholstery.

(Benzene, Benzyl Alcohol, n.Butyl Phthalate, Camphor, Para-Phenylenediamine, Resorcinol, Styrene, Tricresyl, Toulene, Xylene)

3. ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS
This group breaks down into carbon dioxide, water and oxygen This group contains Butane, L.P.G. {Liquid Propane Gas]. Propane, Mineral Spirits. These are associated with hydrocarbons, tobacco smoke, gas burners, and furnaces.

(Butane, Isobutane, Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG), Mineal Spirits,  Propane)

4. CHLORIDES
This group breaks down into carbon dioxide, water, CL20 and oxygen. This group includes: Methyl Chloroform,

(Methylene Chloride, Chloroform, Methyl Chloroform, Perchloroethylene, Trichloroethylene, Phenacetin)

5. NITROGEN CONTAINING COMPOUNDS
This group breaks down into water, nitrogen and oxygen. Ammonia, and Hydrogen Cyanide are members of this family.

(Hydrogen Cyanide, Amino Phenol, Ammonia, Ammonium Hydroxide, Benzopyrene,  EDTA (Ethylene Diamine Tetracetic Acid), Ethanolamine)

6. SULFUR CONTAINING COMPOUNDS
This group breaks down into carbon dioxide, water, sulfuric acid and oxygen. Members of this group include: Ammonium Persulfate and Sodium Bisulfite

(Ammonium Persulfate, mmonium Thioglycolate, Sodium Bisulfite, Thioglycolic Acid)

7. OTHER
Of particular note: Alkylated Silicates form Carbon Dioxide, water, Silicon Dioxide and Oxygen. Silicon Dioxide is considred a respiratory hazard. Members of this group include: Non-ionic Detergents

(Alkylated Silicates, Non-Ionic Detergents)

8. NON-REACTIVE COMPOUNDS Members of this group include: Hydrogen Peroxide, Potassium Persulfate Sodium Bromate.

(Calcium Oxide, Hydrogen Peroxide, Phosphoric Acid, Potassium Persulfate, Silicas, Sodium Bromate, Sodium Persulfate, Strontium Peroxide, Tetrasodium Pyrophosphate, Titanium Dioxide, Carbon Tetrachloride (low temperature))

REACTIVITY WITH OZONE:

I . ACIDS, ALCOHOLS, ALDEHYDES, AND KETONES.

1. ACETIC ACID, Formula: CH3COOH
Reaction with Ozone: C2H402 + 4 03 ----> 2 C02  +  2 H2O +  4 O2 . Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 2

2. ACETONE, Formula: CH3COCH3,
Reaction with Ozone: C3H6O + 8 03 ----> 3 C02 + 3 H2O + 8 O2 . Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 4

3. n-BUTYL ACETATE Formula C6H12O2.
Reaction with Ozone: C6H12O2 + 16 O3 ----> 6 C02 + 6 H2O  +  16 O2  Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 8

4. BUTOXYETHANOL Fonnula: C6HI4O2.
Reaction wtih Ozone: C6HI4O2 + 17 O3 ---- > 6 CO2   + 7 H2O +  4 O2 . Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 20.5

5. CETYL AlCOHOL Formula CH3(CH2)15 OH
Reaction with Ozone: CH3(CH2)15 OH + 48 03 ----> 16 CO2 + 17 H2O + 4 O2 . Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 24

6. FORMALDEHYDE Formula HCHO
Reaction with Ozone: HCHO + 2 O3 ----> C02 + H2O + 2 O2 . Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 1

7. ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL Fornula CH3CHOHCH5
Reaction with Ozone: CH3CHOHCH5 +  9 O3 ---- > 3 CO2 + 4 H2O + 9 O2 Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 4.5

8. GLYCEROL Formula CH2OHCHOHCH2OH
Reaction with Ozone: CH2OHCHOHCH2OH + 7 O3 ---- > 3C02 + 4H2O + 7 O2  Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 4.5

9. METHACRYLIC ACID (glacial) Formula CH2C (CH3) COOH
Reaction wtih Ozone: CH2C (CH3) COOH + 9 O3 ---- > 4 CO2 + 3 H20 + 9 O2 . Number of Omolecules consumed per molecule of compound = 4.5

10. METHYL-ETHYL-KETONE Formula CH3COC2H5.
Reaction wtih Ozone: CH3COC2H5 + 11 O3 ---- > 4C02 + 4 H2O + 11 O2 . Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 5.5

11. PROPYLENE GLYCOL Formula C3H8O2.
Reaction wtih Ozone: C3H8O2 + 8 O3 ---- > 3 CO2 + 4 H2O + 8 O2  Number of Omolecules consumed per molecule of compound = 4

II. AROMATIC COMPOUNDS

12 BENZENE Formula C6H6
Reaction with Ozone C6H6 + 11 O3 ---- > 6C02 + 3 H2O + 11 O2  Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 5.5

13 BENZYL ALCOHOL. Formula C6H5CH2OH
Reaction wtih Ozone. C6H5CH2OH + 17 O3 ----> 7 C02 + 4 H20 + 17 O2  Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 8.5

14. N.BUTYL PHTHALATE Formula CI2H14O4.
Reaction with Ozone:  CI2H14O4 + 27 O3----> 12 C02 + 7 H20 + 27 O2  Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 13.5

15 CAMPHOR Formula C10H16O
Reaction Wlih Ozone: C10H16O + 27 O3 ---- > 10 C02 + 8 H2O + 27 O2 . Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 13.5

16. PARA-PHENYLENEDIAMINE  Formula C6H8N2
Reaction with Ozone: C6H8N2 + 16 O3 ----> 6 C02 + 4 H2O + N2 + 16 O2 Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 8

17 RESORCINOL Formula C6H6O2
Reaction with Ozone: C6H6O2 + 13 O3 ----> 6 C02 + 3 H20 + 13 O2  Number of O2   molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 6.5

18. STYRENE Formula:C6H5CHCH2
Reaction with Ozone: C6H5CHCH2  + 20 O3 ---- > 8 C02 + 4 H2O + 20 O2 . Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 10

19. TRICRESYL Formula C21H21PO4.
Reaction with Ozone C21H21PO4.. + 102 O3 ---- > 42 C02 + 21 H2O + P2O5 + 102 O2 Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 51

20  TOULENE Formula C6H5CH3.
Reactlon with Ozone: C6H5CH3 .+ 18 O3 ----> 7 CO2 + 4 H2O + 18 O2  Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule ot compound = 9

21 XYLENE Formula C6H4(CH3)2
Reaction with Ozone C6H4(CH3)2  + 21 O3 ----> 8 CO2 + 5 H2O + 21 O2 Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 10.5

III. ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS

22 BUTANE Formula C4H10
Reaction with Ozone: C4H10 + 13 O3 ----> 4 CO2 + 5 H2O + 13 O2 Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 6.5

23. ISOBUTANE. Formula (CH3)3CH (need to check for accuracy)

24. LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS [LPG] General Formula CnH2N+2. Both LPG (Liquefied petroleum gas) is a mixture of aliphatic, saturated hydrocarbons, therefore only a generic formula was used to describe the reaction with Ozone .
Reaction with Ozone: CnH2N+2 + O3 ---- > nC02 + (n+1) H2O + O2  Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound: 3/2 n + 1/2 O

25. MINERAL SPIRITS General Formula Cn H2n+2
Mineral spirits are mixtures of aliphatic, saturated hydrocarbons, therefore only a generic formula was used to describe the reaction with Ozone. Reaction wtih Ozone: Cn H2n+2  + O3 ---- > nCO2 + (n+ 1) H2O + O2 . Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound: 3/2 n + 1/2 O

26. PROPANE Formula C3H8
Reaction with Ozone: C3H8 + 10 O3 :----> 3CO2 + 4 H2O + 10 O2  Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 5

I V. CHLORIDES

Chlorides are organic compounds which have one or more chlorine atoms in their structure. These compounds react with Ozone to produce hypochloride which in turn decompose to produce chloride and release oxygen, as shown in the following reaction: CL2O ---- > 2CL-1 + 1/2 O2

27. METHYLENE CHLORIDE (Dichloromethane), Formula CH2CL2
Reaction with Ozone: 2CH2CL2 + 4 O3 ---- > CO2 + H2O + CL2O + 4 O Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 1

28. CHLOROFORM, Formula CHCL3.
Reaction with Ozone: 6 CHCL3 + 6 O3 --- > 6 CO2 + 3 H2O + 9 CL2O Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 2/9 O

29. METHYL CHLOROFORM, Formula CH3CCL3
Reaction with Ozonee: 2CH3CCL3 + 14 O3 ---- > 4 CO2 + 3 H2O + 3 CL2O + 14 O2 Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 3.5

30. PERCHLOROETHYLENE Formula CCL2CCL2
Reaction with Ozone: CCL2CCL2 + 6 O3 ---- > 2 CO2 + 2 CL2O +  6 O2 Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 1.5

31. TRICHLOROETHYLENE Formula CHCLCCL2
Reaction with Ozone: 2 CHCLCCL2 + 12 O3 ---- > 4 CO2 + H2O + 3 CL2O + 12 O2 . Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 3

V. NITROGEN CONTAINING COMPOUNDS

32. HYDROGEN CYANIDE Formula HCN
Reaction with Ozone: 2HCN + 5 O3 ---- > 2 CO2 + H2O + N2 + 5 O2  Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 1.25

33 AMINO PHENOL General Formula CH3C6H4NH2 (need to check for accuracy)

34 AMMONIA. Formula NH3
Reaction with Ozone: 2NH3 + 3 O3 ----> N2 + 3 H20 + 3 O2 . Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 0.75

35 AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE Formuta NH4OH
Reaction with Ozone: 2NH4OH +3 O3 ----> N2 +5 H2O + 3 O2  Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 0.75

36. BENZOPYRENE Formula C20H12
Reaction with Ozone: 3C20H12 + 46 O3 ---- > 60 CO2 + 18 H2O . Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 17

37. EDTA (Ethylene Diamine Tetracetic Acid) Formula C10H16N2O8
Reaction with Ozone: C10H16N2O8 + 20 O3 ---- > 10 CO2 + 8 H2O + N2 + 2 O2 [possible error, original document listed "2 CO2" at the end, but it didn't make sense to me]. Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 30

38. ETHANOLAMINE Formula NH2CH2CH2OH
Reaction with Ozone: 2NH2CH2CH2OH + 13 O3 ---- > 4 CO2 + 7 H2O + 13 O2 + N2 . Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound: = 3.25

39. PHENACETIN. Formula CH3CONHC6H4OC2H5.
Reaction with Ozone : CH3CONHC6H4OC2H5. + 49 O3 .---- > 20 CO2 + 13 H2O + N2 + 49 O2 . Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 24.5

VI. SULFUR CONTAINING COMPOUNDS

These compounds react with OZONE to produce sulfur trioxide (S03), which in the presence of water forms sulfuric acid, a strong mineral acid.

40. AMMONIUM PERSULFATE Formula (NH4)2S2O8
Persulfuric acid (H2S2O8) is a very unstable acid which releases oxygen upon exposure to heat. Its decomposition product is sulfuric acid (H2S04) a very strong mineral acid.

Reaction with Ozone: (NH4)2S2O8 + 3 O3 ---- >N2 + H2S2O8 + 3 H2O + 3 O2  Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 1/5 O

41. AMMONIUM THlIOGLYCOLATE Formula NH2COCH2SH
Reaction with Ozone: [possible error] 2C2H5SNO + 17 O3 ---->4  C02 + 5 H2O + N2 + 2SO3 + 17 O2 Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 2

42. SODIUM BISULFITE Formula NaHS03.
Reaction with Ozone: NaHS03 + O3 ---- > NaHSO4 + O2  Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 1.5

43. THIOGLYCOLIC ACID Formula HSCH2COOH
Reaction with Ozone: HSCH2COOH + 7 O3 ---- > 2 CO2 + 2 H2O + S03 + 7 O2 . Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 3.5

VII. OTHER

44. ALKYLATED SILICATES General Formula (RnSiO)m. These silicates produce SILICA (silicon dioxide) which is considered a respiratory hazard

Reaction with Ozone: (RnSiO)m + O3 ---- > CO2 + H2O + SiO2 . Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 4 5m

45. NON-IONIC DETERGENTS Formula CxHy , Non-ionic detergents do not have a generic formula. therefore the formula CxHy is used to define this class of compounds.

Reaction with Ozone: CxHy + O3 -- > CO2 + H2O + O2 . Number of O2 molecules consumed per molecule of compound = 6x + 1.5y

VIII. NON-REACTIVE COMPOUNDS The following compounds do not react with OZONE.

46. CALCIUM OXIDE Formula CaO
47. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE Formula H2O2
48. PHOSPHORIC ACID Formula H3PO4
49. POTASSIUM PERSULFATE. Formula K2S2O5
50. SILICAS Formula SiO2
51. SODIUM BROMATE Formula NaBrO3
52. SODIUM PERSULFATE Formula Na2S2O5
53. STRONTIUM PEROXIDE Formula SrO2
54. TETRASODIUM PYROPHOSPHATE Formula Na4P2O7
55. TITANIUM DIOXIDE Formula TiO2
56. CARBON TETRACHLORIDE (low temperature) Formula CLC4

How to Apply Ozone for VOC Neutralization